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Overview of Lithium Nitride

wallpapers News 2021-07-23
Overview of Lithium Nitride
Lithium nitride is a metal nitrogen compound with a molecular formula of Li3N. It is a purple or red crystalline solid with a light green luster in reflected light and a ruby ​​​​color in transmitted light. Long-term exposure to the air will eventually become lithium carbonate. The chemistry of basic metal nitrides is extremely limited. Among the binary compounds, only lithium nitride is stable and easy to prepare.
At room temperature, metallic lithium can partially generate lithium nitride when exposed to air. Lithium generates lithium nitride in a nitrogen stream, which is 10-15 times faster than in the air. At this time, all lithium is converted into lithium nitride. Compared with this property, it is difficult for other alkali metals to form nitrides. For example, sodium nitride can only be prepared by deposition on sapphire with atomic beam at low temperature, and it will decompose after a little heating. Lithium nitride is easily hydrolyzed to generate lithium hydroxide and ammonia gas, especially fine powdered lithium nitride, which can burn violently when heated in air. Therefore, lithium nitride must be handled in an inert atmosphere (such as nitrogen). Can be used as nitriding agent, reducing agent in organic reactions and nitrogen source in inorganic reactions
Lithium Nitride Crystal structure
Lithium nitride belongs to the hexagonal crystal system. In the lithium nitride crystal, there is a layer of lithium and nitrogen composed of lithium and nitrogen atoms. The arrangement is that the lithium atoms are arranged in the manner of carbon atoms in the graphite crystal, and the nitrogen atoms are in the center of the hexagon formed by the lithium atoms. A lithium layer exists between the lithium and nitrogen layers. Because the ratio of lithium to nitrogen in the lithium and nitrogen layers is 2:1, which is Li2N, which does not meet the stoichiometric formula Li3N, there is a lithium layer between every two lithium and nitrogen layers.
In the lithium nitride unit cell, the distance between Li-N is 213pm, which is close to the sum of the ion radius of lithium ion and nitrogen anion. The distance between each lithium and nitrogen layer and the adjacent lithium layer is 194pm, which shows that the nitride Lithium is an ionic compound.
Lithium Nitride Physical properties
Melting point:                               845°C
Entropy:                                        SΘ = 37.6 J/(mol·K)
Enthalpy of formation:                ΔHfΘ = -198.6 kJ/mol
Free energy of formation:          ΔGfΘ = -155.1 kJ/mol
Heat capacity:                              CpΘ = 75.2 J/(mol·K)
Solubility:                                      insoluble in most organic solvents.
Lithium Nitride Chemical nature
It is stable in humid air because the surface is covered with a protective layer.
Reacts with water to form lithium hydroxide and ammonia:
Li3N (s) + 3 H2O (l) → 3 LiOH (aq) + NH3 (g)
Lithium nitride is a super base, which is stronger than negative hydrogen ions, so it can deprotonate hydrogen:
Li3N (s) + H2 (g) → Li2NH (s) +LiH (s)
When lithium nitride is heated in hydrogen, lithium amide (LiNH2) and lithium imide (Li2NH) can be successively obtained, which are finally converted into lithium hydride and release ammonia.
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